I've been disturbed about one of the 10 Commandments, "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy." Luther's Small Catechism, #45, explains God does not require us to observe the Sabbath and other holy days of the OT. I thought it peculiar that this commandment would be the only one omitted. Matt.12:8 and Col. 2:16,17 are the stated supporting Scripture. Reading the complete context of these verses, I understand it to be in reference to the Pharisees' (man's) laws added on to God's commandments in both Matthew and Colossians. Weren't Jesus, the Son, and the Holy Spirit present with the Father when Moses received the 10 Commandments? Furthermore, the construction of the days of the week were named by the Romans after their pagan gods and there isn't clarity as to which day/days God designates as the 6 days of work and which is the 7th day of rest (which is first, and which is last). Different people have different work days. Since it isn't stated which days, wouldn't it mean after one works 6 days (whichever days one labors), labor ceases and rest in body and mind is to solely focus on God?
It is important to note that the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20; Deuteronomy 5) are part of the Mosaic Law that God gave to his Old Testament people of Israel. The Mosaic Law had limited purpose and duration. Its obligations ended when Jesus Christ came into our world as the fulfilment of all the prophecies of the Messiah.
We can see from the Mosaic Law wording of the third commandment (“Sabbath day”) and the fourth commandment (reference to the Promised Land) that not all the content of the Ten Commandments applies to New Testament followers of the Lord.
So, how do Christians view the Ten Commandments? We rightly regard them as a summary of God’s moral law: his will for all people of all time. We do see Jesus (Luke 18:20) and the apostle Paul (Romans 13:9) restating some of the commandments in a different order from the Old Testament listing. Presenting the commandments in that way illustrates how we, as New Testament Christians, are free from the Mosaic Law wording of the Ten Commandments and yet look to the Ten Commandments as a summary of God’s will for our lives.
The language of Scripture is clear in pointing to the seventh day of the week (no matter what name we give it) as the Old Testament Sabbath Day. God set the pattern by working on the first six days and then resting on the seventh (Exodus 20:11).
There is something else to keep in mind as time went on: if God’s people were going to find spiritual rest through their corporate worship of the one true God, they would need a common “seventh day” for their assembly. Saturday, the seventh day, was that day.
The Sabbath Day pointed ahead to Jesus. He has “rest” for our souls through the forgiveness of sins (Matthew 11:28).