No. “Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus” (Romans 8:1). God has already punished Jesus his Son for our sins (Isaiah 53:4-8). Through Spirit-worked faith in Jesus, we are spared the punishment our sins deserved (Psalm 103:10).
As God interacts in the lives of Christians, the language of the Bible is “discipline” not “punishment” (Hebrews 12:1-13). The motive behind discipline is love not anger.
When you and I face difficulties or challenges or disappointments in life, they are not punishments from God. Romans 8:1 explains that God does not condemn Christians now, nor will he condemn them in the future. No condemnation, no punishment—that is God’s gracious treatment of his children.
Those whose earthly lives end in unbelief, rejecting God, will receive punishment from God (Matthew 22:13; Mark 16:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10).